Nature and its beauty

These are notes by Chemistry Notes Info website on atomic structure for college chemistry students.

Atom:

          In Greek Atom means not divided. In 1803 john Dalton made a famous theory atomic theory according to this theory “matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.” But in 1897 Sir J.J. Thomson proved experimentally that atoms are made of charged particles called electrons. And in the beginning of 20th century many scientists like Lord Rutherford, E. Goldstein proved that atom is not a smallest particle but is made up of electron, protons and neutrons.

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What is Viscosity

Viscosity can be defined as the fluids resistance to flow. Viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by the tensile stress or shear stress. We can also say that viscosity is the internal resistance of the fluid.

viscosity

What is Mean by Viscous

To understand viscosity. First, we learn “Viscous”, so viscous is material having a thick, sticky consistency between solid and liquid and also having a high viscosity.

Viscosity Examples to Learn Clearly

Honey and Water are great examples to learn clearly about viscosity. Honey (highly viscous) is an example of a high viscosity liquid , while Water (low viscous) is an example of a low viscosity liquid. So, we can say that, Honey does’t flow easily while Water flows very easily.

Viscosity Formula to Calculate Viscosity

Viscosity of any liquid can be calculated with viscosity formula. And formula is as follows-

Viscosity = Force×Time ∕Area

Newton’s Viscosity Law

According to Newton’s viscosity law’, Shear stress between the two adjacent fluid layers is directly proportional to velocity gradients between these two layers. Read more at https://chemistrynotesinfo.com/what-is-viscosity-in-chemistry/

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Science Quiz

Science Quiz

Science MCQ : Science GK by www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com
This Science Quiz is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in chemistry and science.

Q1. Fuel level is measured by

Science Quiz

Speedometer
Fuel Scale
Fuel Meter
Fuel Gauge

Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Fuel Gauge

Q2. Electricity is measured by

Ammeter
Galvanometer
Amplifier
Currentmeter

Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q2: Galvanometer

Q3. Volume and density of solids is measured by

Dilatometer
Caliper
Densimeter
Gas Pycnometer

Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q3: Gas Pycnometer

Q4. ______ is used in measurement of blood glucose (diabetes)

Glucometer
Blood Glucose Monitor or Glucose Tester
Glucose Meter
Glucometer or Glucose Meter

Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q4: Glucometer and Glucose Meter

Q5. Specific gravity of liquids (density of liquids) is measured by

Fathometer
Thermometer
Hygrometer
Hydrometer

Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q5: Hydrometer

Q6. ____ device is used to measure humidity

Dynamometer
Thermometer
Hygrometer
Hydrometer

Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q6… get answer at https://chemistrynotesinfo.com/chemistry-gk-part9/

Free Chemistry Lecture Notes for 11th 12th BSc and MSc

chemistry notes info

chemistry notes

ChemistryNotesInfo: Chemistry Notes for 11th, 12th, BSc, Msc, Formula and Spectroscopy

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Biomolecules Class 12

Biomolecules Class 12

Biomolecules In these chemistry notes, we learn about biomolecules class 12 chemistry. Some state boards books also contain these notes in 11th class chemistry book i.e. Biomolecules class 11. We prepare chemistry notes as per biomolecules class 12 ncert book, that is good for both classes of students. Cell is the basic unit in all …

How Medicines are Manufactured?

How Medicines are Manufactured

In ancient times people use plants or animals matter to cure some sort of ailment or diseases by using home remedies. But now day’s medicine manufacturing is performed by chemical processing. Scientists first finds chemicals in plants or animals with their years of research and knowledge, then isolate these chemicals and try to make artificial …

11 Scientists and their Brilliant Inventions

11 scientists and their brilliant inventions

Above video is video of 11 Scientists and their Brilliant Inventions. You can also see more videos on famous scientists and their inventions at our YouTube channel Chemistry Notes Info . List of famous scientists and their inventions Archimedes The Archimedes’ Screw Robert Hooke discovered plant cells Law of elasticity Benjamin Franklin Law of Conservation …

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Abbreviations

Abbreviations used in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

Abbreviations used in Pharmaceutical Manufacturing As we know pharmaceutical manufacturing products i.e. medicines, life saving drugs have very high importance in our life. Today we learn about various abbreviations used in pharmaceutical manufacturing process steps or simply in pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. These short forms are used in every pharmaceutical manufacturing companies like pharmaceutical industry in USA, …

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Chemistry Notes Info _ Your Chemistry Tutor for Innovative Education

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Stoichiometry MCQs Part24

Chemistry Quiz of Stoichiometry MCQs Calculation based on the chemical equations are known as the stoichiometry and this Chemistry Quiz contains Stoichiometry MCQs. MCQ-1.  If a compound containing 50 % of element A having atomic weight 10 and 50 % of element B having atomic weight 20 then, its simplest formula is :   AB   …

Top 100 Basic Chemistry Quiz Question Answers

100 GK Questions Chemistry Quiz Top 100 Chemistry Janral Nolej MCQs Quiz We publish some chemistry general knowledge question-answer to increase your chemical science GK.Like  Share  this post & Download Chemistry Quiz App from Google Playstore Q1.Who is father of modern chemistry Rutherford C.V.Raman Lavoisier Einstein Ans of Chemistry GK Question Q1: Lavoisier Q2.Who is father of modern atomic theory Rutherford John …

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12 Class Chemistry Notes PDF

12th Class Chemistry Notes PDF Firstly, I suggest you to read chemistry notes online. Secondly, prepare your own classroom notes. Thirdly, and most importantly, you can Download 12 Class Chemistry Notes PDF from below link. Download Now Free PDF Notes for Class XII Chemistry Chapters Currently, we will share chemistry notes pdf of XII class in …

Solid State Chemistry MCQ Part 23

Solid State Chemistry MCQs These are 20 selected MCQs from Solid State Chemistry which are very important and asked in various exams like AMU, KCET, MP CET, CBSE, Karnataka CEE, MP PMT, Kerala MEE, MP PET, AIIMS, BHU, IIT, EAMCET, NCERT, CPMT, AIEEE, CETMP, Pb PMT, AFMC. MCQ-1.  In Solids, the constituent particles may be …

What Happens When You Eat Too Much?

What Happens When You Eat Too Much? Food is a thing that everyone like! But do you know what happens when you eat too much?  During thanksgiving, marriages, birthday parties’ people eat too much delicious tasty food. Do you know your stomach can rupture after overeating but good news is that your body gives you …

Hydrogen and its compounds MCQs Part 21

Hydrogen And Its Compounds MCQ MCQ-1.  Hydrogen from HCI can be prepared from :   P   Mg   Hg   Cu Show Answer MCQ-2.  Commercial hydrogen is obtained from :   Producer gas   Marsh gas   Oil gas   Coal gas Show Answer MCQ-3.  Oxygen is used to purify water since it : …

General Organic Chemistry MCQs Part 20

General Organic Chemistry MCQs MCQ-1.  The shortest C – C bond distance is found in :   Ethane   Benzene   Diamond   Acetylene Show Answer MCQ-2.  Which of the following forces is strongest among the following ? :   Dipole-dipole forces   H-Bonding   All equal   Vander Waals forces Show Answer MCQ-3.  Which …

Science Quiz: Purification and analysis of organic compounds MCQ Part 19

Purification and analysis of organic compounds MCQ These are some of the random multiple question answers from Purification and analysis of organic compounds… 1. Anthracene is purified by which method :   Distillation   Sublimation   Filtration   Crystallisation Show Answer 2.  A bottle containing two immiscible liquids. These liquids may be separated by using a : …

Class 11 Chapter 6 – Thermodynamics

Class 11 Chapter 6: Thermodynamics System:             A system is that part of universe in which we made observations is called system. Surroundings:             All remaining part of the universe, other than system is called surroundings. Universe = System + Surroundings Types of System:             The system is classified on the basis of movement of …

Heat and Temperature

Heat and Temperature in Hindi

Chem Lovers, today we learn about heat and temperature. Also, try to solve general chemistry questions related to heat & temp. like, what is heat? what is temperature? what is difference between heat & temp. If you want to learn in Hindi then, read our Heat, Temp. in Hindi ताप और तापमान What is Heat? …

Structure of Atom Class 11 MCQ

Chemistry Videos

Structure of Atom MCQ These are some of the random multiple question answers from Structure of Atom…  1. Who discovered anode rays :  Goldstein Rutherford J. Stanley J. J. Thomson Show Answer 2. Neutron was discovered by :  Rutherford Chadwick Austin  Langmuir Show Answer 3. Radioactive isotope of hydrogen has ________ number of neutrons :  0  1  2  3 Show Answer 4. Cathode rays …

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 MCQ

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Class 11 MCQ These are some of the random multiple question answers from Some Basic Concept of Chemistry… 1. If a matter has definite volume and definite shape, then it is : SolidLiquidGasAll of the Above Show Answer 2. Mole is SI unit of : CurrentTemperatureAmount of Substance Luminous intensity …

Chemistry Formulas for Chemical Bonding

Chemistry Formulas for Chemical Bonding      1.       Necessary condition for an ionic solid to be dissolved in water                                 Hydration Energy > Lattice Energy    2.       Order of melting and boiling points of certain compounds NaF > NaCl > NaBr > NaI;    MgO > CaO > BaO 3.       No Bond is 100% Ionic …

What are the factors which favor formation of ionic bonds?

What are the factors which favour formation of Ionic Bonds? These are the factors which favours formation of ionic bonds… 1. One of the atoms i.e. Metal atom must have low ionization energy, so that it can easily lose its electrons. 2. Other atoms i.e. Non-Metal atoms must have high electron affinity, so that it can …

Chemistry Formulas for Nuclear Chemistry (Radioactivity)

Chemistry Formulas for Nuclear Chemistry (Radioactivity) Empirical relationship between size of nucleus and its mass number is             R = R0A1/3 Where,                                    R = radius of nucleus,             A = mass number,             R0 = contestant = 1.4×10-13cm Rate of Decayof radioactive substance Where,             K = decay constant,             N = No. …

Chemistry Formula for Atomic Structure Part 2

Chemistry Formulas for Atomic Structure Chemistry Formulas from Bohr’s Model of Atom ·         Angular momentum of electron in nth orbit Where, m = Mass of the electron,             v = velocity of electron,             r = radius of the orbit,             h = Planck’s constant,             n = no. of orbit in which electron is …

Chemistry Formulas for Structure of Atom Part 1

Chemistry Formulas of Structure of Atom Chem Lovers! These notes contain chemistry formulas of structure of atom. i.e. atomic structure formulas. These formulas are are taken from all class books, pdf and reference books so, useful to all students.  Chemistry Formulas from Rutherford Atomic Model ·         Radius of Nucleus, rn = r0 × A1/3 Where, …

Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part II

Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part II Gram Atomic Weight (GAW) related Chemical Formulas ·         No. of Gram Atoms or Mole Atoms = Weight of an Element/GAW ·         Weight of an Element in gram = No. of Gram Atoms x GAW ·         No. of atoms in 1 GAW = 6.02×1023 ·         No. …

Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part I

Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part I Atomic Weight related Chemical Formulas ·         Atomic Weight of an Element = Weight of an average Atom of that Element/ (1/12)x Mass of an element of C12 ·         1 a.m.u. = 1.66×10-24g ·         Atomic Weight = Gram Atomic Weight (GAW) ·          1 Gram Atomic Weight …

Carbonate Chemical Formula

Carbonate Chemical Formula and Description Carbonate It is a salt of the Carbonic Acid characterized by the presence of carbonate ion. Carbonate is a poly-atomic ion with the formula of CO2−3 Chemical Formula of Carbonate Carbonate CO2−3 Structural Formula of Carbonate Chemical Properties of Carbonate Metal carbonates decomposes on heating. Example of S-Block Carbonates H2CO3, …

Famous Scientists and their Inventions

famous scientists and their inventions

Famous Scientists and Their Important Research & Inventions in the Field of Chemistry Given below is the list of scientists and their inventions & important research. These famous scientists or chemists perform many science and chemistry experiments. Contribution of these scientists help in the development of Chemistry and Science.   List of Famous Scientists and their …

Pharmaceutical Chemistry MCQs Part17

Pharmaceutical Chemistry MCQs Science Quiz by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com These are some of the random multiple question answers from Pharmaceutical Chemistry… 1. Sulfonamide metabolism in human body is carried out by: OxidationConjugationMethylationAcetylation Show Answer 2. H2 gas is produced, when ______ is added to water: LiHCH4NH3H2S Show Answer 3. _____ is Anti-hypertensive drug with a Tetrazole ring: …

Humidity

What is Humidity? The simple meaning of humidity is ‘atmospheric moisture’ or ‘amount of water vapor in the atmosphere’.  Humidity is the amount of water vapors present in the atmosphere (or air). Water vapors are the gaseous state of water and are invisible.  Humidity can be measured by three ways that are: absolute, relative and …

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General Questions Answers asked during interview in pharmaceuticals manufacturing companies Question: What is GMP?Answer: GMP is a system for ensuring that products are consistently produced and controlled according to quality standards. It is designed to minimize the risks involved in any pharmaceutical production that cannot be eliminated through testing the final product. Question: What is …

10 Facts About Earth

Top 10 Interesting Facts About Mother Earth Lets learn 10 interesting facts about mother earth… 1. Earth is the 3rd planet from the Sun.2. About 2/3 of the mother earth is covered by water.3. Age of planet earth is about 4.5 billion years.4. Earth has a moon, which orbiting earth and completes one cycle in …

Analytical Balance

Analytical Balance What is an analytical balance? Analytical balance is a lab-instrument used to determine mass of any matter very precisely. These analytical balances are very sensitive and expensive lab-instruments, and also upon the accuracy and precision of analytical balance the accuracy of lab-analysis result depends so handle these balances very carefully. Generally used analytical …

Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 – Elephant’s Toothpaste Experiment

Catalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 – Elephant’s Toothpaste Experiment Elephant’s toothpaste is a foamy substance, formed as a result of rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Elephant’s toothpaste is a chemical reaction experiment. This experiment is generally used for classroom demonstrations, as it requires fewer ingredients and makes a “volcano of foam”.   Description of …

Chemical Reaction Quiz Part16

Chemical Reaction Quiz Science Quiz by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com Source http://www.reddit.com This Chemical Reaction Quiz part16 is based on chemical reactions. 1. Chemical reaction always gives- Reactants A change of state A different substance Water All of the above Show Answer 2. From given below, 4-balanced chemical equations, which is example of combustion reaction- 2Mg + …

Chemical Reactions Quiz Part15

Chemical Reactions Quiz Science Quiz by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com This Chemical Reactions Quiz part15 is based on chemical reaction. 1. Chemical Reaction, 2H₂O → 2H₂ + O₂ is a- Synthesis Reaction Decomposition Reaction Combustion Reaction Single Displacement Reaction Double Displacement Reaction Show Answer 2. Chemical Reaction, 8Fe + S₈ → 8FeS is a- Synthesis ReactionDecomposition Reaction …

Science Quiz Part14

Science Quiz on Measuring Devices Science Quiz by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com This Science Quiz part14 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in the field of Science. 1. Distance traveled, displacement is measured by: TaxmeterTaximeterDistancemeterDisplacementmeter Show Answer 2. Surface tension of the liquid is measured by: TacheometerTintometerTensiometerTachometer Show Answer 3. Temperature is measured by: …

Science Quiz Part13

Science Quiz on Measuring Devices Science Quiz by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com This Science Quiz part13 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in the field of Science. 1. Color is measured by: TintometerColor MeterColor Identification DevicesColor Measuring Instrument Show Answer 2. Speed, velocity of the vehicle is measured by: Speed DetectorSpeed TesterSpeedometerNone of the …

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Science Quiz on Measuring Devices Chemistry GK by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com This Science Quiz part12 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in the field of Science. 1. Intensity of the light as a function of the wavelength is measured by: SpectrometerSpectrophotometerSpectroscopyColor Spectrophotometer Show Answer 2. Properties of light is measured by: SpectrometerSpectrophotometerSpectroscopyColor Spectrophotometer …

Science Quiz Part11

Science Quiz Chemistry GK by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com This Science Quiz part11 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in the field of Science. 1. Osmotic strength of the solution, colloid is measured by: OsmosisindicatorpH MeterOsmometerRotameterShow Answer 2. pH is measured by: PyrometerpH MeterOhmmeterBerometer Show Answer 3. Illuminance or irradiance is measured by: PhotometerLight …

Amino Acids

Amino Acids Definition of Amino Acid Amino acid is a simple organic compound that contains a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group. What are Amino Acids? Amino acids are organic compounds containing carboxyl (—COOH) and amino (—NH2) functional group with side chain, this side chain is specific to amino acid. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and …

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Chemistry of Smartphone About 20 years before no one use smartphones but nowadays everyone have a smartphone. Apple iPhone 7 Plus, Google Pixel XL, Samsung Galaxy S7 Edge, LG G5, OnePlus 3, HTC 10 and Huawei Nexus 6P are examples of some popular smartphones. This article is all about chemistry behind smartphones by Chemistry Notes …

Chemistry GK Part10

Science General Knowledge Chemistry GK by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com This chemistry GK part10 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in chemistry and science. Q1. Measurement of force is measured by Load Meter Mass Cell Weight Cell Load Cell Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Load Cell Q2. Intensity of light is measured …

Chemistry GK Part9

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Chemistry GK Part8

Chemistry General Knowledge Chemistry GK by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com This chemistry GK part8 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in chemistry and science. Q1. Structure of crystals is measured by Crystal Gauge Diffractometer Diffractoscale Dynamometer Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Diffractometer Q2. Size, speed, and velocity of raindrops is measured by …

Chemistry GK Part7

Chemistry GK Chemistry General Knowledge Chemistry GK by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com This chemistry GK part7 is based on different measuring devices or measuring instruments used in chemistry and science. Q1. _________ is use to measure rain Rain Gauge Rainmeter Rain Scale None of the above Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Rain Gauge Q2. alcoholic strength …

Density

DENSITY Density of many samples is measured in labs for example in unites states oil and gas industry, they define density in general way as ‘weight per unit volume’ although ‘weight per unit volume’ is not density it is ‘Specific Weight’ so density is ‘mass per unit volume’. Density is also known as “Volumetric Mass …

Volumetric Analysis Chemistry Formulas

Volumetric Analysis Volumetric Analysis is a quantitative chemical analysis method. In Volumetric analysis, we measure the volume of the standard solution (whose concentration is known) to know the unknown concentration of the analyte. Volumetric analysis is also called titrimetric analysis. The basic principle of titration is “concentration of a substance in solution is measured by …

Gravimetric Analysis Chemistry Formulas

Gravimetric Analysis Gravimetric Analysis is a quantitative chemical analysis method. In gravimetric analysis, we establish relationship between weights of two substances or sometimes establish relationship between weight of a substance with volume of gas or gases. How to Solve Problems of Gravimetric Analysis for Mass to Mass Relationship Solve problems of gravimetric analysis for mass …

Chemical Arithmetic and Chemical Stoichiometry

Chemical Arithmetic Chemistry is mainly an experimental science, in which we study about physical properties and chemical properties of different substances and measure these properties up to highest possibility with great efforts to get results with great precision and accuracy. Results of our experimental measurements or numerical problems have- Arithmetic number, Unit of measurement. Chemical …

Chemical Test

Chemical Test In Chemistry, Chemical Test are performed to measure or analyze Biochemical, Organic and Inorganic elements and chemical compounds. Chemical testing of water, chemical composition analysis of any compound, chemical test for organic compounds, chemical test for inorganic compounds, chemical test for functional groups, elemental analysis, chemical testing of food for its ingredients and …

Test

Test What is Test Test is a method to know about knowledge and ability of person giving test. Test meaning assessment about knowledge of someone on some topics related to test. Test Definition In short and simple way, we can say that, “Test is measure of knowledge and ability“ Their is so many tests which …

Periodic Table

Periodic Table Dynamic Periodic TablePeriodic Table PDF What is Periodic Table ? Periodic table is arrangement of chemical elements in the form of table. According to order of their atomic number, electronic configuration or chemical properties. Why we need Periodic Table ? Their was more than 115 elements have been discovered, which need to be …

Definition

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science of fireworks

Science of Fireworks Their is great science behind fireworks. Fireworks are created to express joy happiness and to celebrate many festival’s like Diwali Dhashera Eid Baisakhi Christmas etc. Fireworks produce brilliant Colors sparkling and shapes. Their are different chemicals, elements which produces different colours and also rocket science to move fireworks from ground to sky …

Chemistry GK Part6

Chemistry GK by http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.com Chemistry General Knowledge Chemistry Multiple Choice Question Answer Q1. _________ are building blocks of proteins Peptides Amino Acids Fatty Acids Glycol Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Amino Acids Q2. Which is true statement about amino acids At neutral pH, Amino Acids are uncharged In proteins, Amino Acids are generally …

Chemistry GK Part5

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Peptide Synthesis

Peptide Synthesis In the branch of Organic Chemistry, we study about Peptide Synthesis. Peptide synthesis is all about manufacturing or producing peptides, while peptides are organic compounds which are made-up of multiple amino acids through amide bonds. In biological systems these peptides are further joined together to form long chain of peptides, these long chain …

Chemistry GK Part4

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Chemistry GK Part3

Chemistry MCQs Chemistry General Knowledge as Chemistry Multiple Choice Question Answer Q1. Rare gases are Mono Atomic Di Atomic Tri Atomic Tetra Atomic Ans of Chemistry GK MCQ Question Q1: Di Atomic Q2. Alkali metals belong to Group 0 in Periodic Table Group 1 in Periodic Table Group 2 in Periodic Table Group 3 in …

Chemistry GK Part2

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Chemistry GK Part1

Chemistry General Knowledge We publish some chemistry general knowledge question-answer to increase your chemical science GK. Q1.Who is father of modern chemistry Rutherford C.V.Raman Lavoisier Einstein Ans of Chemistry GK Question Q1: Lavoisier Q2.Who is father of modern atomic theory Rutherford John Dalton Jaber Robert Boyle Ans of Chemistry GK Question Q2: John Dalton Q3.Who …

What is Wet Chemistry

Wet-Chemistry What is Wet Chemistry ? Wet Chemistry  is a branch of chemistry which deals with the study of and testing of chemicals in liquid state. Wet-chemistry is also known as Bench Chemistry as many wet chemical methods are performed on chemistry laboratory benches.

What is Normality ?

What is Normality ?  Normality is the ratio of gram equivalent weight to volume of solution in liter.  where gram equivalent is the measure of reactive capacity of molecule consider for normality. Normality (N) :-                                  Gram equivalent weight  / Volume …

Aufbau Principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule of Maximum Multiplicity

Aufbau Principle                               According to this principle in the ground state of the atoms the orbital’s are filled in order of their increasing energies means electrons enter higher energy orbital’s  so order in which orbital’s are filled is 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, …

Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear Chemistry Definition of Nuclear Chemistry- Nuclear chemistry is the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of changes in the nucleus of an atom, radioactivity and nuclear reactions. What is Nuclear Chemistry? Nuclear chemistry is interesting field of chemistry in which we learn how nuclear reactions happens and how different types of changes …

What is Molality ?

What is Molality?  It is the ratio of moles of substance to kilogram of solvent.Where mole is weight in gram divided by molecular weight.Molality is chemistry terminology. Molality (m) :-                                  No. of moles of the solute  / Mass of solvent in Kilogram (Kg).     Unit =>   m = Moles/Kg What is Molality YouTube Video on Molality and …

Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry Definition of Analytical Chemistry- Analytical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry deals with the study of material examination to separate out them into different components and identifying all components and how much these components present in material. There are different analytical methods and techniques to perform these tasks. What is Analytical Chemistry ? …

Chemistry

What is Chemistry? It is the branch of science which deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter. Definition of Chemistry Chemistry is the scientific study of matter and substances for how they combine, separate, react or interact with each other. Types of Chemistry Chemistry is generally (as per basic chemistry) classified …

Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic Chemistry What is Inorganic Chemistry ? Definition of Inorganic Chemistry- Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry, which deals with the study of inorganic compounds and organometallic compounds. Inorganic chemistry includes study of all chemical compounds excluding organic compounds (where, organic compounds are carbon based compounds, generally having carbon-hydrogen bonds i.e. C-H bonds.   …

Physical Chemistry

Physical Chemistry What is Physical Chemistry ? Definition of Physical Chemistry– Physical chemistry is the branch of chemistry. Physical Chemistry utilizes applications of physics to chemical systems to understand their physical properties. Physical chemistry is the study of atomic, subatomic, macroscopic, microscopic or particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of different laws and concepts …

Molarity vs Molality

Molarity vs Molality What is Molarity?  Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in liter.Where mole is weight in gram divided by molecular weight.Molarity is chemistry terminology. Molarity (M) :-                                  No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution in liter.     M = …

Molarity vs Normality

Molarity vs Normality What is Molarity ?  Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in liter. Where mole is weight in gram divided by molecular weight. Molarity is chemistry terminology. Molarity (M) :-                                  No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution …

Chemistry Notes in Hindi Medium

केमिस्ट्रीनोट्स.कॉम ChemistryNotes.com Chemistry notes in Hindi Language

हिंदी माध्यम में रसायन विज्ञान नोट्स हिंदी में हमारे रसायन शास्त्र के नोट्स पाने के लिए नीचे दिखाए चरणों का पालन करें –अ –  सबसे पहले हमारी वेबसाइट पर जाएँ http://www.chemistrynotesinfo.comब – दाहिने और देखें, आपको ब्लॉग आर्काइव के निचे भासा बदलने का बटन मिलेगा उसे दबाएं और अपनी भासा चयन करेंस – कुछ समय …

Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry What is Organic Chemistry ? Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry which involve the scientific study of structure, properties & reactions of organic species, compounds or organic materials, means matter have various forms found that contains carbon atoms. Study of structure of organic chemistry compounds includes use of spectroscopy techniques like IR …

Charge Transfer Transition

Charge Transfer Transition

CHARGE TRANSFER SPECTRA Definition of charge transfer Transition All electronic transition that occur between orbitals that are centered on different atoms is known as charge transfer Transition. It’s absorption band is very strong Types of charge transfer bands Two types of charge transfer bands seen in metal complexes. i.e. 1: Legand to Metal charge transfer …

Extraction of Essential Oil by Steam Distillation of Tulsi (Ocimum Basillicum)

Extraction of Essential Oil by Steam Distillation of Tulsi (Ocimum Basillicum) Essential oils are insoluble in water and evaporate easily. We can obtain essential oil from plant tissues by distillation or extraction processes. Generally essential oils are obtain from every part of plant like stem, root, leaves, flowers, seed, branches etc. And these essential oils …

What is Hyperconjugation

Definition of Hyper conjugation What is Hyperconjugation? Hyperconjugation is stabilizing interactions that are results from interaction of electrons in a sigma (σ-bond) (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent empty or partially-filled p-orbital or a pi (π) orbital to give an extended molecular orbitals that increases stability of system. Hyper-conjugation is chemistry terminology and also known as Sigma …

what is coagulation

COAGULATION Coagulation: – The process of setting of colloidal particles is called coagulation or precipitation of the sol. The coagulation of the lyophobic sols can be carried out in the following ways:- 1.      By electrophoresis: – The colloidal particles move towards oppositely changed electrodes get discharged and precipitate. 2.      By mixing two oppositely charged sols: …

What is an Element

What is Element ? Definition of Element           Substance which consists of only one type of atom is known as element. So we can say that, an element is a substance which is made up entirely from the one type of atom. Example of Element Element Hydrogen, Element Carbon, Element Oxygen, Element Nitrogen, Element Chlorine, Element …

What is an atom?

What is an atom? Atom is basic building block of all matter. An Atom Have 1. Nucleus Nucleus is very small and heavy part of the atom. 2. An Surrounding Electron Cloud Surrounding electron cloud is large and lightweight part of the atom. Nucleus of an Atom  Nucleus Contains Protons  Protons have a positive charge. …

10 Class- Periodic Classification of Elements

Periodic Classification of Elements In year of 1800 about 30 elements were known but at present we know about 114 elements. All these elements have different properties. So to study about these elements easily, scientists start searching some patterns in the properties to arrange these elements. Early Attempts in the Classification of Elements                                                                    This …

10 Class- Carbon and its Compounds

Carbon and Its Compounds Allotropes of Carbon – Fulleren-Diamond-Graphite ·             Instead of gaining and loosing electrons, carbon shares its 4-electrons with another element or carbon to form molecule. ·             Covalent bonds are formed as a result of sharing of electrons. Example- H2, O2, N2. Covalent compounds have low melting point and boiling point due to …

10 Class- Metals and Non-Metals

Metals and Non-Metals Metals             Metals are the solid materials which are typically hard, malleable, ductile and conduct heat and electricity, and also posses metallic lusture. Example- Iron, Gold, Aluminium, Silver, Copper etc. Non-metals                     Nonmetals are chemical elements which lacks metallic properties. Non metals are either solids or gases except Bromine (Br2), which occurs …

10 Class- Acids, Bases and Salts

Acids Bases and Salts ·       Natural indicator of acids and bases – Litmus, Turmeric ·       Synthetic indicator of acids and bases – Methyl Orange, Phenolphthalein ·       Olfactory indicators of acids and bases – Odor of these substance changes in acids and bases. pH scale for Acid Neutral and Alkaline (or Base) & Acid Base strength …

what is chemistry

What Is Chemistry Definition of Chemistry ? It is the branch of science which deals with the study of composition, properties and interaction of matter.Now you may have question or queries related to matter like….. What Is Matter ? Anything which has mass and occupies space known as matter. Ex:- Water, pencil, pen, book etc. Physical …

MAIN REGULATORY BODIES AROUND THE WORLD FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

MAIN REGULATORY BODIES AROUND THE WORLD FOR PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS Medicines are chemical or natural products used for healing, diagnosing, treating and improving health. These medicines contain API and Excipient. API is the main active drug which provide therapeutic effect and biologically active.  Excipient is non-active ingredient added in formulation along with API in medicine formulation. …

Media Filling Process

Media Filling Process in Pharma Industry Material issue as per FO (Formulation Order) Material Verification Material transfer into critical area (sterile lactose) Liquid media preparation Resealing of lactose bags Check pH Dispensing and blending with intervention simulation Sterilize the m/c parts, rubber stoppers , dispensing aids, media garments and bin m/c parts assembling ( filling) …

BASIC LABORATORY PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURE

BASIC LABORATORY PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURE INTRODUCTION: –                                  Pathology is a branch of biological science which deals with the nature of disease, through a study of its causes, its processes and its effects, with associated structural and functional alteration. When a person becomes ill, his symptoms are due to disturbances in the normal functions of …

What is pH ?

Define pH What is pH? pH is a scale used in chemistry to represent acidic, basic or neutral nature of solutions etc. Definition of pH pH is negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration. pH = -log10[H+] pH scale is from 0 to 141. Acids have pH below 7.2. Bases have pH above 7.3. Neutral …

Top 10 Chemistry Websites

List of Top 10 Chemistry Websites Given below is the list of top ten chemistry websites. These top 10 chemistry websites are the best websites to learn chemistry as these chemistry sites provide all chemistry conten in literature and also explain topics via images, videos and 2D – 3D diagrams, charts and many more innovative …

BSc1Year Mathematical Concepts

BSc 1st Year Mathematical Concepts Mathematics For Chemist Mathematics for chemist or general mathematics needed in chemistry include chapter of basic mathematics of upto class 10 and some chapters of higher classes like Vectors, Matrices and Linear Algebra, Differential Equations, Differenciation, Intigration, Group Theory. Maths For Chemist Vector Vector is a quantity having magnitude and …

Vitexin – MSc Chemistry: Subject- Chemistry of Natural Products

VITEXIN Vitexin is a naturally occuring compound of FLAVONOID family and also known as Apigenin Flavone Glucoside or Apigenin-8-C-glucoside. Vitexin have Molecular weight of about 432.38 gm/mole with molecular formula C21H20O10.  Vitexin (Apigenin Flavone Glucoside or Apigenin-8-C-glucoside ) is obtained from Passion flower, Chaste tree and also present in Phyllostachys Nigra Bamboo Leaves and also …

States of Water H2O

Welcome Chemistry Lovers! In this science post we learn about three states of water i.e. different forms of water : Solid, Liquid and Gas… States of Water ( H2O) ·         Water exists in three state i.e. Solid (Ice), Liquid (Portable Water, Sea Water, Drinking Water etc.), Gas ( Steam, Vapors).  ·         In these three form …

12 Class Chapter 16 – Chemistry In Everyday Life

Chemistry In Everyday Life Antagonists:                      Drugs that binds to the receptor site and inhibits its natural function is known as antagonists. Agonists:                 Drugs that mimic the natural messenger by switching on the receptor is called as agonists. Antacids:                 Its example is Metal Hydroxide. Antihistamine:                          Its example is Terfinadine, Cimetidine. Histamine stimulates …

9 Class- Periodic Table of Elements

Periodic Classification of Elements

Periodic Table of Elements Do you know, more than 115 elements have been discovered. So, these elements need to be arranged systematically. First elements were classified as metals and non metals. But as per requirements, many periodic table of elements researched. History of classification of elements 1.     Prout’s Hypothesis – 1815         …

10 Class- Chemical Reactions and Equations

Chemical Reactions and Equations ·       Every chemical change is a chemical reaction. ·       General observation to identify whether a chemical reaction take place or not- 1.    Change in state. 2.    Change in color. 3.    Evolution of gas. 4.    Change in temperature. Chemical Equations: Any equation which describes the change of reactants to products is called …

Maths 5th Class

5th Class Mathematics Mathematics is very necessary in understanding chemistry very well, so we now publish some basics of mathematics from class 5th maths. Hope you like our work. Multiplication:  operation to get no. of times of given no. eg- 5×5 = 25 Vedic trick of multiplication– HCM (Highest Common Multiple) and LCM (Lowest Common …

what is chemical and what is chemical reaction

BASICS OF CHEMISTRY Chemical-any substance that has a defined composition Chemical reaction– the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances States of matter-the physical forms of matters, which are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma  Reactant– a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction Product– a substance …

Chemical Reactions and Chemical Formula

Chemical Reactions Chemical Reaction is the reaction in which two or more than two substances react to form a new substance is known as Chemical Reaction. The substances which react may be ion or compound of element. Reaction: Reactant reacts with each other to give product.                Reactant   ——–>  Product Example of general chemical reactions …

Important Chemistry Polymers with their Monomer, Formula and Uses

Important Polymer Table Important Polymers with their Monomer, Formula and Uses. Polymers Monomers Monomer Formula Use 1.    Teflon Tetrafluroethene CF2=CF2 Oil seals, Gasket 2.    Polyacrylonitrile Acrylonitrile Commercial Fibers 3.    Terylene or Decron Ethylene Glycol Teryphthalic Acid HOCH2-CH2OH Commercial Fibers 4.    Nylon 6,6 And 5.    Nylon 6 Hexamethylene-diamine Adipic Acid Caprolactum NH2(CH2)6NH2 HOOC(CH2)4COOH Making Sheets, bristles …

Types of Chemical Reactions

Types of Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are reactions which involve making and breaking of bonds between atom to yield new substances.     1.    Combination Reaction: These are the reactions in which one single product is formed from two or more reactants. Example: i. Formation of Calcium Hydroxide. CaO (s)(quick lime) + H2O (l) —–> Ca(OH)2 …

Polymer, Polymerization and Polymer Classification

Polymer And Polymerization Condensation Polymer: Nylon-6-6, Terylene. Addition Polymer: Polythene, Neoprene. Polymer Classification Polymer Classification on the basis of Source: 1.    Natural Polymer:                                    These are polymers which found in nature (in plants and animals). Example- Protein, Cellulose, Rubber. 2.    Semi-synthetic Polymer:                                           These are polymers which are prepared by treating naturally occurring polymers. Example- …

Polymer And Polymerization

Polymer And Polymerization Condensation Polymer: Nylon-6-6, Terylene. Addition Polymer: Polythene, Neoprene. Polymer Classification Polymer Classification on the basis of Source: 1.    Natural Polymer: Protein, Cellulose, Rubber. 2.    Semi-synthetic Polymer: Cellulose Derivatives as cellulose acetate (Rayon), Cellulose Nitrate. 3.    Synthetic Polymer: Plastic (Polyethene), Synthetic Fibers ( Nylon 6-6), Buna-S. Polymer Classification on the basis of Structure: …

Chemical Equations

Chemical Equations Any equation which describes the change of reactants to products is called chemical reaction. Reactant1+Reactant2+…………—>   Product1+Product2+……… In chemical equations reactants are placed on left hand side and products are placed on right hand side and arrow sign is placed between them. Direction of arrow shows the direction of reaction. Example: chemical equations …

Liquid State

Liquid State Intermolecular forces in liquids are stronger than in gases. Liquid have definite (fix) volume and they can flow and take the shape of the container in which these liquids are stored. These online education classes degree notes are published by ChemistryNotesInfo.com and hosted at ChemistryNotesInfo.blogspot.com Vapour pressure, viscosity, surface tension are some physical …

Behavior Of Real Gases

Behavior Of Real Gases Deviation From Ideal Gas Behavior:                                                     When we do different experiments, we find that real gases don’t follow PV=nRT Equation of ideal gases. So real gases don’t follow Boyle’s law means, if we plot graph between PV and P then we don’t get parallel straight line at all pressures with X-axis. …

Kinetic Molecular Theory Of Gases

Kinetic Molecular Theory Of Gases                                                       The postulates or assumption of Kinetic molecular theory of the gases are as follows: ·       Gases contain atoms or molecules, as large no. of identical particles. These atoms or molecules are at large distances from each other, so that volume of gases is very high as compared to …

Ideal Gas Equation, Equation Of State, Density And Molar Mass Of Gaseous Substances, Dalton Law Of Partial Pressure, Aqueous Tension and Partial Pressure In Terms Of Mole Fraction

Ideal Gas Equation    Combination of 3 laws (Boyles Law, Charles Law and Avogadro law) gives a single equation (PV=nRT) called as Ideal gas equation. Mathematically, According to Boyle’s Law; at constant T and n, V 1/P ……….1 According to Charles Law; at constant P and n, V T ……….2 According to Avogadro Law; at …

Gaseous State, Gas Laws, Thermodynamic Scale

Gaseous State                      Only 11 elements ( H, O, N, F, Cl, He ,Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn exists in gaseous state under normal conditions. Characteristic Physical Properties Of Gases ·       Gases are highly compressible. ·       Gases exert the equal pressure in all direction. ·       As compared to solid and liquids, gases have much lower …

Types of Forces in Chemistry

Different Types of Forces Intermolecular Forces:                              These are forces of attraction and/or repulsion between the interacting particles i.e. atom or molecules. Dutch Scientist J. Van der Waals (1837-1923) explains deviation of the real gases from ideal behavior with intermolecular forces, so intermolecular forces are also called as van der waals forces. Example: Hydrogen bonding …

What Is Spectroscopy

SPECTROSCOPY CHEMISTRY NOTES What is Spectroscopy? Spectroscopy:-  It deals with the study of interaction of electromagnetic radiations with matter.  Spectroscopy is the study of interaction of electromagnetic radiations with chemical species, As a result of these interaction, the energy of electromagnetic radiations get absorbed or emitted by the matter in discrete amounts (photons or quanta) …

Atomic number, Mass number, Isobars and Isotopes

Atomic number (Z)= no of protons in the nucleus of an atom                                        = no of electrons in a neutral atom Mass number (A) = number of protons (z) + number of electron (n) Isobars:-                These are atoms with same mass number but different atomic number.               Isotopes: –                 These are atoms …

Covalent Bond and Formal Charge (F.C.)

Covalent Bond Covalent Bonds are the bonds which are formed  by sharing of electrons. ·        When sharing of one pair of electron takes place is known as single covalent bond. ·        When sharing of two pair of electrons takes place is known as double bond. ·        When sharing of three pair of electron takes place …

Fire and Safety

FIRE AND SAFETY It takes three things to cause a fire: Heat – or something that is hot Fuel – or something that will burn Oxygen – the air that is all around us Fire Triangle = Heat + Oxygen + Fuel Fire Tetrahedron = Heat + Oxygen + Fuel + Chain Reaction If we …

Discovery of protons & Discovery of Neutrons

Discovery of Protons       =>  Discovered by E. Goldstein.      =>  In modified cathode ray tube gives +ve charge carrying particles known as canal rays.       =>  Lithest & smallest +ve ion obtained from Hydrogen called proton. Characteristics 1)    Depend upon, nature of gas present in cathode ray tube. 2)    Charge to mass ratio of …

Periodic Trends In Physical & Chemical Properties

Periodic Trends In Physical Properties 1.     Atomic Radius:-  ·        “Atomic radius decreases with increases in atomic no. in a period” because within the period, the outermost electrons are within the same valence shell. Also effective  nuclear charge increases with increase in atomic no. results in increased attraction force between nucleus and outer electrons . ·        …

Mendeleev Periodic Law, Modern Periodic Law and s, p, d, f – Block Elements

Mendeleev Periodic Law                                       Mendeleev explanation that properties of  the elements are periodic function of their atomic weights. Modern Periodic Law                                        Moseley (1913) according to this law physical &  chemical  properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. S – Block Elements                             Elements of group 1 (Alkali metals) with  ns2 …

Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom :: Principle Quantum Number ‘n’ , Azimuthal Quantum Number ‘p’ , Magnetic Orbital Quantum Number ‘mi’ , and Electron Spin Quantum Number (ms)

Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom Branches of science which explain duel behavior of Metter is called quantum mechanics . ð Quantum mechanics independently developed by Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrodinger (1926) Fundamental equation developed by Schrodinger (won Nobel Prize 1933) Equation for a system (atom or molecules was energy does not change with time) Principle …

Dual Behaviour of Matter and Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Dual Behaviour of Matter =>  Explain by de Broglie (1924) =>  He explain that matter also behave like radiation and exhibit dual behavior means both like particle and wave like properties . => Relation    Where  l =  wavelength.              m = mass of particle ,              v = velocity of particle,               p = …

Bohr’s model for hydrogen atom and Limitation of Bohr’s model

Bohr’s model for hydrogen atom =>  Explain by nails Bohr (1913). =>  Postulates for Bohr’s modal are, 1.     Electron in hydrogen atom move around nucleus in circular path of fixed radius and energy. these paths are called orbits 2.     Energy of e does not change with time. However, when electron move from lower to higher …

Photo electric effect

Photo Electric Effect =>  given by H. Hertz(1887) =>  When a beam of light strike a metal surface then electrons were ejected. This phenomena is known as photo electric effect. 1.     Electrons ejected from metal surface when beam of  light strike the metal surface 2.     Number of electron ejected is directly proportional to intensity (or …

Wave nature of electromagnetic radiations and Particle nature of electromagnetic radiation

Wave nature of electromagnetic radiations: – First explanation gives by James Maxwell (1870) 1)    Oscillating magnetic & electric fields produced by the oscillating charged particles are perpendicular to each other and both also perpendicular to the wave direction of propagation. 2)    These waves do not require medium i.e. electromagnetic wave can travel in vacuum. 3)    …

11 Class Chapter 5- States Of Matter

States Of Matter ·       Water exists in three state i.e. solid (ice), liquid (portable water), gas (steam, vapors). ·       In these three states water has different physical properties but same chemical composition i.e. H2O ·       Also characteristics of these states of water depend on the molecular energy and how molecules aggregate. ·       As molecules change …

Thomson model of atom and Rutherford’s nuclear model of atom

Thomson model of atom =>  Give by J.J Thomson (1898) =>  According to J.J. Thomson atoms posses a spherical shape with radius about 10-10 m, in which + ve charge is uniformly distributed. =>  Electrons are embedded in such a manner to give most stable electrostatic arrangement. =>  Other names of this model plum pudding …

Atomic Theory of matter, Cathode ray discharge tube experiments and Charge (e) to mass (me) ratio of electron

Atomic  Theory of matter:-                                             According to this theory , atom is the ultimate particle of matter , also known as Dalton’s  Atomic theory (1808). Cathode ray discharge tube experiments: –  1.     Cathode rays start from cathode and move toward anode. 2.     These rays are not visible but there behaviour can be observed with fluorescent …

GATE Syllabus for Chemistry (CY)

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY Structure:Quantum theory: principles and techniques; applications to a particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, rigid rotor and hydrogen atom; valence bond and molecular orbital theories, Hückel approximation; approximate techniques: variation and perturbation; symmetry, point groups; rotational, vibrational, electronic, NMR, and ESR spectroscopy Equilibrium: Kinetic theory of gases; First law of thermodynamics, heat, energy, …

Pattern for Single Paper MCQ test- NET Chemistry

UGC NET Chemistry (CY) Exam Patter The MCQ test paper of chemistry shall carry maximum of 200 marks. This exam shall be for duration of 3hrs. The question paper shall be divided in three parts i.e. Part ‘A’ , Part ‘B’, Part ‘C’ Part wise description of paper Part ‘A’ shall be common to all …

Laws of chemical combinations, Dalton’s Atomic Theory and Concentration expression methods

Laws of chemical combinations       1)      Law of conservation of mass:- According to this law “matter can neither be created nor destroyed” Given by Antone Lovoisin in 1789.     2)      Law of definite proportion:– According to this law “A given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by weight known as …

Physical State, Classification and Properties of Matter

Physical states of matter => Solid, liquid, gas. Physical state Definite volume Definite shape Example Solid Yes Yes Book, pen Liquid Yes No Water, milk Gas No No CO2, Air Temperature & pressure effect on physical state             Classification of matter: – 1.       Mixture: a.       Homogeneous mixture b.      Heterogeneous mixture 2.       Pure substance: a.       Elements …

CSIR-UGC NET SYLLABUS FOR CHEMICAL SCIENCES PAPER I AND PAPER II

CSIR-UGC National Eligibility Test (NET) for Junior Research Fellowship and Lecturer-ship SYLLABUS FOR CHEMICAL SCIENCES PAPER I AND PAPER II    Physical Chemistry : 1. Basic principles and applications of quantum mechanics – hydrogen atom, angular momentum. 2. Variational and perturbational methods. 3. Basics of atomic structure, electronic configuration, shapes of orbitals, hydrogen atom spectra. …

Radioactivity, Penetrating Power, Tracer technique of radioactive isotopes, Various fields of tracer techniques and Carbon Dating

Radioactivity Radioactivity is discovered by French scientist Becquerel in 1896. Substances which emits radiation is known as radioactive substances and this property of substances to emit radiation is called as radioactivity. example : Uranium exhibit radioactivity. Rutherford conduct some experiments with radioactive substances and his observations are as follows- 1. Rays which turned toward negative electrode is known …

Atomic Number, Mass Number, Isotopes and Isobars

Atomic Number Number of protons present in nucleus of atom of an element is known as atomic number. It is denoted by (z) example : Carbon have 6 protons so its atomic number is 6 (z = 6) For neutral atom,  atomic number (z) = number of protons (p) = number of electron (e) Number of …

Bohr Bury Scheme & Valence Electrons and Valency

Bohr Bury  Scheme   Distribution of Electrons in Various Orbits  In 1921, Bohr and Bury gives some laws for distribution of electrons in various orbits, which are called as Bohr-Bury Scheme.  Rules of Bohr Bury scheme are as follows- 1. Maximum number of electron in any shell should be 2n2 , where n is serial number of …

Project on Barcode

Project on Barcode What is Barcode ? Barcode is machine readable representation of information related to product to which it is attached. Types of Barcode ? Barcodes are of two types i.e. 1D and 2D 1.       One dimensional (1D) Barcode :                                                              It is also known as linear barcode. Originally it is prepared by changing …

Periodic Properties of the Elements

Periodic Properties of the Elements Periodic properties are the properties of the elements which depend on their electronic configuration and these properties changes on moving down in the group and on moving left to right in the period of the periodic table. Some periodic properties are atomic size, electron affinity, ionization energy, metallic and non …

Metals, Non-Metals and Metalloids

METALS            These are more than 78% of all known elements. And present in the left side of periodic table. ·        These are  usually solids at room temp.(meaning (Hg) is exception)                                                                                                   ·        This have high melting points . ·        Boiling point. ·        These are metallic (can be flattened into thin sheet by hammer)  and ductile …

11 Class Chapter 3- Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Classification of Elements Mendeleev periodic law  :-                                        Mendeleev explanation that properties of  the elements are periodic function of their atomic weights. Modern  periodic  law  :-                                         Moseley (1913) according to this law physical &  chemical  properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers. s – Block elements: –                              Elements of …

Aldol Reaction

Aldol Addition / Aldol Reaction Aldol Addition Reaction  The name ALDOL is taken from Aldehyde and Alcohol. Mechanism of Aldol Reaction Aldol Reaction Mechanism – Acid Catalyzed and Base Catalyzed  If we control kinetic condition for aldol reactions then mixed aldol addition reactions may be used for the preparation of the adducts that can not …

Modern Periodic Law and Modern Periodic Table

Modern Periodic Law and Modern Periodic Table                                                                                    Moseley in 1913, after doing many experiments comes to a conclusion that the elements should be arranged as per their atomic no. and not according to atomic masses. As atomic no. is fundamental property of all elements of periodic table. So Mosley gives a new law which …

Characteristics of covalent compounds

Characteristics of Covalent Compounds 1.     Crystal Structure:                               Crystal structure of covalent compounds is formed from atoms or molecules. Crystal of covalent compounds are divided in three parts as – i.                   These are crystals of covalent compounds whose molecule are very small and these molecules are held together by vander waals forces. Example: Sulphur, Iodine. …

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table                                                 In Mendeleev’s Periodic Table, Mendeleev classify elements according to their atomic masses and arranged these elements in table according to their increasing order of atomic masses. Mendeleev’s Periodic Law                                                 According to Mendeleev’s Periodic Law – “Physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic masses”. Mendeleev’s Periodic …

Newland’s Law of Octaves and Lother Meyer Curves

Newland’s Law of Octaves According to Newland’s Law of Octaves elements arranged in the group of 8 elements and every 8th element is similar to the 1st element. Li         Be         B        C          N         O           F Na         Mg    Al          Si        P         S          Cl  Drawback …

How We Will Learn

HUMAN LEARNING Human learning may occur from many resources or places, A child starts learning and continues his learning procedure life long. Human gets learning from home, society, education, training, school, college etc……. Human brain has the ability to get new leanings or modify existing leanings of knowledge, skills, values, preferences or behaviors and results into …

Prout’s Hypothesis and Dobereiner’s Triads

Prout’s Hypothesis                                     According to this hypothesis atomic mass of elements is multiple of mass of hydrogen atom. So elements are related to each other on the basis of their atomic masses. It fails due to the reason that some elements do not have atomic mass in whole no. (Like chlorine have atomic mass of …

SI Table & Prefixes for SI Units

SI Table Base physical quantity Symbol for quantity SI units name SI units symbol Length l Metre m Mass m Kilogram Kg Time t Second s Current I Ampere A Temperature T Kelvin K Amount of substance n Mole Mol Luminous intensity Iv candela Cd Prefixes for SI Units Multiple Prefix Symbol  10-24 Yocto y …

Top 10 Ways for Balancing of Chemical Reactions and Types of Chemical Reaction

Balancing of Chemical Reactions                                                     For balancing of chemical reaction the no. of atom on reactant side should be equal to no. of atom on product side, so that total mass of reactant is equal to total mass of product. You read these 9 class notes at http://www.ChemistryNotesInfo.comof ‘Chemistry Notes Info’ organization website. H2 …

Formation of Chemical Compound

Formation of Compound                                       We get chemical formula of molecule by writing valence of 1st atom in front of 2nd atom and valence of 2nd atom in front of 1statom. Example: valence of carbon is 4 and oxygen is 2, write 4 in front of O and 2 in front of C in subscripts as …

Polar Covalent Bond AND Characteristics of Polar Covalent Compounds

Polar Covalent Bond                                     In the covalent compound if one is the more is more electronegative than other atom, then shared pair of electrons is attracted towards more electronegative atom so it acquire or obtain some partial negative charge which is represented by delta negative (d-) and other atom acquire some partial positive charge which …

Covalent Compounds and Types of Covalent Bonds

Covalent Compounds                                    Compound which are formed as a result of covalent bonding and containing covalent bonds are known as Covalent Compounds. Example: Hydrogen, Chlorine, Oxygen, Water, Ethanol etc. Types of Covalent Bonds Covalent Bonds are of three types which are as follows- 1.     SingleCovalent Bonds 2.   DoubleCovalent Bonds 3.     TripleCovalent Bonds Single Covalent Bonds …

Simple Chemical Reaction and General Rule for writing Simple Chemical Reaction

Simple Chemical Reaction                                          Chemical reaction is represented by chemical equation in brief by taking help of symbol and formula of participating substances in reaction. General Rule for writing Simple Chemical Reaction    1.     Reactant are written on left hand side and if more than one reactant are present than write plus (+) sign …

Electrovalent Compound and Characteristics of Electrovalent Compounds

Electrovalent Compound                              The compounds which contain ionic or electrovalent bonds are known as Electrovalent or Ionic Compounds. Mainly electrovalent compounds are formed due to reaction between highly electropositive and highly electronegative atoms. Characteristics of Electrovalent Compounds 1.     Crystal Structure:                               In solid state of electrovalent compounds anions and cations are arranged in regular manner …

Classes

Free Online Classes E-Learning by Online Classes  We at Chemistry Notes Info provides free online classes for all students across the globe. You need to bookmark or remember this link for your learning about chemistry, Our link is http://www.ChemistryNotesinfo.com. You get daily updates of chemistry subjective knowledge, competitive exam, terminology updates and many more………. …

Electrovalent Bond

Electrovalent Bond Electrovalent Bond is also known as Ionic Bond because compound formed is ionic in nature having polarity. In electrovalent bond one atom loose electron to form positive ion called cation and another which gain electron to form negative ion called anion. This type of bond is known asElectrovalent Bond or Ionic Bond. Example: Salt- …

Chemical Bonding

< Chemical Bonding Molecule forms by the combination of two atoms of elements, the attraction force operate between atoms is known asChemical Bonding. Chemical bonds are formed due to presence of valence electrons in atoms which present in outermost shell of atom. Question: Why chemical bonds are formed between atoms? Answer: Chemical bonds are formed between atoms …

9 Class- Chemical Bonding and Reactions

Chemical Bonding and Reactions Chemical Bonding Molecule forms by the combination of two atoms of elements. The attraction force operate between atoms is known as Chemical Bonding. Now we learn step by step about chemical bonding and reactions. Chemical bonds are formed due to presence of valence electrons in atoms. Valence electrons present in the …

cGMP – Current Good Manufacturing Practices

cGMP Current Good Manufacturing Practices What for us all are here? To Make Medicines. What are Medicines? Medicines are those which cures a patient without give any adverse reaction. A medicinal product is fit for its purpose only when ………… =>   It is the right product ,It is the right strength ,It is free …

Bohr’s Atomic Model

Bohr’s Atomic Model Neils Bohr in 1913 gives a simple model for atomic structure based on the quantum theory. Main assumption of Bohr atomic model- 1. All atoms consist of dense, very small, positively charged nucleus that have all protons and neutrons in it. 2. Electron revolve around nucleus in definite energy paths known as orbits, …

Rutherford Model of Atom

Rutherford Model of Atom This experiment is also known as alpa () particle scattering experiment. Rutherford bombard alpha particle on gold foil of thickness 0.0004cm and found that- 1. So many particles passes through the gold foil without any deflection. 2. Some alpha particle are deflected at different angles. 3. Very few about 1 in …

Thomson’s Atomic Model

Thomson’s Atomic Model Thomson’s Atomic Model Thomson’s atomic model is first atomic model proposed in 1898 related to atomic structure. This model is similar to water-melon in which positive charge protons is like pulp in which negative charge electrons like seeds in water-melon, also known as pudding model. This model is called Thomson’s atomic model. …

Dalton Atomic Theory

John Dalton Atomic Theory Thiory

Dalton Atomic Theory John Dalton was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist. He developed modern atomic theory. Postulates of Dalton’s Atomic Theory The main points of Dalton’s atomic theory were explained below- Elements are made-up of very small particles known as atoms. Atoms of an element are identical in mass, size and many other chemical …

9 Class- Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure Lets learn about atomic structure. But before learning about atomic structure first we see, what is atom? What is an atom? Matter found around us in nature (like iron rod, glass, cup, pen, pencil etc.) is made up from very small particles, which is known as atoms. we also says that “atoms are …

Discovery of Neutron

Discovery of Neutron Mass of atom is more than the mass of total proton and electron present in atom, which suggest the presence of another particle in atom which lead the discovery of neutron. Chadwick in 1932 discover neutral particles of mass equal to mass of proton by bombarding beryllium metal with stream of fast moving …

Discovery of Proton

Discovery of Proton As we know electron is negatively (-vely) charged particle but atom is electrically neutral so there should be some particles which have positive (+ve) charge to neutralize negative (-ve) charge electron.In 1886, a German scientist E.Goldstein established the presence of +vely charged particles. These positively charged rays travel from anode to cathode …

Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment

Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment or Determination of charge of electron is conduct by an American Scientist R.A.Millikan, who perform an experiment on the charge on oil drops. R.A.Millikan perform several experiments to calculate charge on oil drops and he gets every time its value equal to -1.6×10-19 coulomb.When these results associated …

Discovery of Electron

Discovery of Electron Sir J.J.Thomson and W.Crooks did many experiments with discharge tube for the discovery of electron. Discharge tube have tube like shape made from glass with two electrodes (Cathode -ve and Anode +ve) in vacuum created by vacuum pump connected to discharge tube. High electric potential is applied between two electrodes.   Discharge …

Baeyer Villiger Oxidation

Baeyer Villiger Oxidation Reaction Baeyer Villiger Oxidation The Baeyer Villiger Oxidation is  a oxidation reaction in which oxidative cleavage of a C-C bond near to a carbonyl group happen, which leads to conversion of ketone to ester or cyclic ketone to lactone. Baeyer Villiger Oxidation may be carried out with peracids like MCBPA or with  …

BSc1Year Atomic Structure

Atomic Structure Atom:           In Greek Atom means not divided. In 1803 john Dalton made a famous theory atomic theory according to this theory “matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms.” But in 1897 Sir J.J. Thomson proved experimentally that atoms are made of charged particles called electrons. And in the beginning of …

BSc2Year Chemistry of Elements of First Transition Series

Chemistry of Elements of First Transition Series There are four types of orbital i.e. s, p, d and f. On the basis of electronic configuration- ·         s-block elements : last electron goes in s orbital. ·         p-block elements : last electron goes in p orbital. ·         d-block elements : last electron goes in d orbital. …

BSc2Year Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics Thermodynamics                            study of the inter-relations of various forms of energy in a system is called thermodynamics. Limitation of thermodynamics         i.            laws of thermodynamics are not applicable to small particles like individual atoms or molecule, but laws can be applied to …

BSc2Year Electromagnetic spectrum UV and Visible spectroscopy

Spectroscopy                  It is a branch of science which deals with the study of interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation  Electromagnetic Radiations are a certain amount of energy depending upon its wavelength. Hence these radiations are the sources of energy so called as electromagnetic energy or radiant energy. Electromagnetic Radiations are of many …

Spectroscopy, Electromagnetic Radiations and Types of Spectra

SPECTROSCOPY Spectroscopy :  It is a branch of science which deals with the study of interaction of matter with electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic Radiation :  Electromagnetic Radiations are a certain amount of energy depending upon its wavelength. Hence these radiations are the sources of energy so called as electromagnetic energy or radiant energy. Electromagnetic Radiations are …

What is Salt

What is Salt In  language of chemistry any compound which is formed as a result of reaction between acid and base (alkali) is known as salt. salt is found in sea water in large quantity. Common Salt is a example of salt, also known as Table Salt. It is a white and forms crystals and …

Chemistry Project

This Chemistry Project contain information on many topics related to chemistry     Working with the Properties & Changes of Matter         Chemical- any substance that has defined composition         Everything you see is made up of chemicals         Even things you cannot see are made up of chemicals         Some exist naturally         Some are …

Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy, spectrophotometer, chromohor, auxochrome, shift, Application of ultraviolet spectroscopy

Ultraviolet and Visible Spectroscopy It is a type of Absorption Spectroscopy in which Electromagnetic Radiation of UV region (l = 200 – 400 nm) or visible region (l = 400 – 800 nm) when passed through a sample containing a multiple bond, a part of incident radiation is absorbed by the sample (compound). Amount of …

Radioactivity and What is radioactive substances ?

Radio-Activity What is radioactive substances? Substances which emits radiation by there self are known as radioactive substances. What is radioactivity? Phenomenon of radioactive substances to emits radiations is known as radioactivity. What is importance of radioactivity? Radioactive substances (or radioactive isotopes of elements) are useful in many physical and chemical reactions. Useful in determining complex …

What is X rays?

What is X rays?X-Rays are electromagnetic radiation discovered by WK Roentgen in 1895. X rays are also known as Roentgen rays. Why x rays are used in medical science? X rays are used in medical science because x rays have high penetrating power.

Chemistry Definitions : Basics of Atoms and Moles

Chemistry Page on Basics of Atoms and Moles Atoms and Moles Section 1  Substances are Made of Atoms I. Atomic Theory -As early as 400 B.C., an atomic theory existed that stated that atoms are the building blocks of all matter-Democritus was the first scientist who believed in atoms (Greek)-It wasn’t until the 1800s that …

What is Organic Chemistry

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry which involve the scientific study of structure, properties & reactions of organic species, compounds or organic materials, means matter have various forms found that contains carbon atoms. Study of structure of organic chemistry compounds includes use of spectroscopy techniques like IR Spectroscopy, Microwave Spectroscopy, NMR Spectroscopy, …

Pure Chemical substances

Pure Substances– a sample of matter, either a single element or a single compound that has definite chemical and physical properties Element– a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number Types of pure substances:     Elements Compounds …

All about Matter ?

I. Density Matter has Mass & Volume Matter– Anything that has mass and takes up space The space an object occupies is its volume Volume—a measure of the size of a body or region in three-dimensional space The method used to determine volume depends on the nature of the matter being examined Quantity of Matter …

Working with the Properties & Changes of Matter

Working with the Properties & Changes of Matter Chemical- any substance that has defined composition Everything you see is made up of chemicals Even things you cannot see are made up of chemicals Some exist naturally Some are manufactured Chemical Reaction- the process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more …

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Transition state theory or Activated complex theory It is more modern theory proposed in 1932 by Pelzer & Manger later developed by Erying and colleagues. 1. Rate equation formation using the statistical mechanics to describe equilibrium between activated complex and reactant. 2. Rate equation formulation as per thermodynamical state function to describe transition state complex …

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Transition Series of Periodic Table for 11th 12th BSc Msc Chemistry          What is Transition Metals? As per IUPAC system, transition metals are the elements of periodic table which have partially filled d sub shell or gives cations with incomplete d sub shell, is called transition metal. But many scientist says simply any metal which …

Chemistry 11th & 12th Formula in pdf

11th & 12th Classes Formula in PDF Below is the list of Chemical Formulas Resources 1. Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part I 2. Chemistry formulas for Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic Part II 3. Chemistry Formulas for Structure of Atom Part 1 4. Chemistry Formula for Atomic Structure Part 2 5. …

What is Adsorption ?

What is Adsorption ? Adsorption: – The accumulation of molecular species at the surface rather than bulk of solid or liquid is called Adsorption. Mechanism of Adsorption Inside theAdsorbent (in bulk) the force acting between the particles are mutually balanced but on the surface, the particles are not surrounded by atoms or molecules of their …

Spin Multiplicity Rule

Definition of spin  Multiplicity Rule According to spin Multiplicity Rule ” transition between states of different multiplicity, S, are forbidden. It is a selection rule for electronic transition in complexes. And another selection Rule is Laporte Selection Rule.

Laporte Selection Rule

Laporte Selection Rule

Laporte selection rule was given by Otto Laporte. He was a famous German born American physics scientist. He made great contributions in the field of science like in spectroscopy, fluid dynamics, quantum mechanics and electromagnetic wave propagation theory. In Spectroscopy, his name is given to selection rule as Laporte rule. Definition of Laporte Selection Rule …

Bent Rule

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What is molarity?  Molarity is also known as molar concentration, it is the ratio of moles of substance to volume in litre.Where mole is weight in gram devided by molecular weight.Molarity is chemistry terminology. Molarity (M) :-                                  No. of moles of the solute  / Volume of the solution in litre.     M = strength in gram …

DEBYE HUCKEL THEORY

Debye Huckel Theory This theory is based on 3 assumptions that how the ions act in the solution 1. in the solution electrolytes completely dissossiate into ions 2. electrolyte solution are very dilute of order of 0.01M 3. each ion surrounded by ion of the opposite charge on the average.

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Polymer & Polymerization Condensation Polymer: Nylon-6-6, Terylene. Addition Polymer: Polythene, Neoprene. Polymer Classification Polymer Classification on the basis of Source: 1.    Natural Polymer: Protein, Cellulose, Rubber. 2.    Semi-synthetic Polymer: Cellulose Derivatives as cellulose acetate (Rayon), Cellulose Nitrate. 3.    Synthetic Polymer: Plastic (Polyethene), Synthetic Fibers ( Nylon 6-6), Buna-S. Polymer Classification on the basis of Structure: …

Chemistry Notes Benzene

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12 Class Chapter 6- General principle and process of isolation of the elements

General Principle and Process of Isolation of Elements Minerals: –                 These are naturally occurring chemical substances in the in the earth crust obtainable by mining. Ores   : –         only few minerals are used as sources of that metal. Such minerals are known as ores. Gangue: –             ores …

12 Class Chapter 3- Electrochemistry

ELECTROCHEMISTRY Electrolysis:                     It is the process of decomposition of an electrolyte by the passage of electricity through its aqueous solution or molten state. Faraday’s first law of electrolysis:                                                         In a chemical reaction, the amount of any substance deposited or liberated is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed through it.                                     W …

12 Class Chapter 2- Solution

SOLUTION                                                           Solution:–                 A solution is homogeneous mixture of two or more chemically non-reacting substances, whose composition can be varied within certain limits. Expressing concentration of solutions 1.      Percentage:- =>  mass percentage (%) of a component  (W/W)                   = Mass of the component in solution*100 / Total mass of the solution =>  volume percentage …

12 Class Chapter 1- Solid State

Solid State Chemistry Solid: –          Matter which posses rigidity having definite shape &volume is called solid. Types of solid:- 1.      Crystalline Solid :- Eg:- Metals And Non metals 2.      Amorphous Solid :- Eg:- Rubber ,Glass ,Plastic Difference and Comparison between of characteristics Crystalline Solid: –                             Contain regular arrangement having short …

11 Class Chapter 2- Structure of Atom

Atomic  Theory of matter:-                                             According to this theory , atom is the ultimate particle of matter , also known as Dalton’s  Atomic theory (1808). Cathode ray discharge tube experiments: –  1.     Cathode rays start from cathode and move toward anode. 2.     These rays are not visible but there behaviour can be observed with fluorescent …

Symbol used in chemistry and Formula used in chemistry

Symbol used in chemistry d= densityv= volumem= massCp= specific heatq= heatΔT= change in temperature K= KelvinC= Celsius Formula used in chemistry d=m/vv=m/dm=v*dCp= q/ (m* ΔT)q= Cp*m*ΔTΔT= q/Cp*mm= q/Cp* ΔTTf= q/m*Cp +TiTi= q/m*Cp +Tf (then divide everything on the right by negative 1 [-1]) **this formula isn’t used as often as Tf** t(C°)= T(K) – 273.15K  …

Atoms and Moles

Section 1 Substances are Made of Atoms I. Atomic Theory -As early as 400 B.C., an atomic theory existed that stated that atoms are the building blocks of all matter-Democritus was the first scientist who believed in atoms (Greek)-It wasn’t until the 1800s that atomic theory was revised based on scientific observations  A. Law of …

Some Notes & Terms to remember about Chemistry

Section 1 of Chemistry Notes Info. Working with the Properties & Changes of Matter Chemical- any substance that has defined composition Everything you see is made up of chemicals Even things you cannot see are made up of chemicals Some exist naturally Some are manufactured Chemical Reaction- the process by which one or more substances …

Chemistry Test

Chemistry Quiz contains different pages linked below containing chemistry quiz question… 

  1. Solutions Quiz
  2. Stoichiometry Chemistry Quiz Part24
  3. Solid State Chemistry MCQs Part23
  4. Atoms, Molecules and Chemical Arithmetic MCQs Part22
  5. Hydrogen and its compounds MCQs Part21
  6. General Organic Chemistry MCQs Part20
  7. Purification and Analysis of Organic Compounds Part19
  8. Some Basic Concept of Chemistry MCQs
  9. Structure of Atom MCQ
  10. Acids and Bases Chemistry MCQs Part18
  11. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Quiz Part17
  12. Chemical Reaction Quiz Part16
  13. Chemical Reactions Quiz Part15
  14. Science Quiz Part14
  15. Science Quiz Part13
  16. Science Quiz Part12
  17. Science Quiz Part11
  18. Chemistry GK Part10
  19. Chemistry GK Part9
  20. Chemistry GK Part8
  21. Chemistry GK Part7
  22. Chemistry GK Part6
  23. Chemistry GK Part5
  24. Chemistry GK Part4
  25. Chemistry GK Part3 
  26. Chemistry GK Part2
  27. Chemistry GK Part1

Holi

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Holi, festival of colours, is important significance the span of Phalgun (February-March).
Also called Phagwah, sensible is the humungous moon term mark Phalgun that ushers ascendancy the pop up garner drag India. undeniable is besides a act of the glean deposit.

The revelry gets its advance from the Puranic chance of Holika. Holika was the mate the demon-king Hiranyakashipu. The king, narcissistic in that he was, well-timed that everybody ascendancy his dominion aggrandizement him diacritic. exceptionally to his ire, he cause that his son, Prahlada, was a worshipper of idol Vishnu. existent was wherefore that Hiranyakashipu solid to wreck Prahlada importance connivance eclipse his playmate. Holika had been ok a cream that gave her the qualification to rest unsusceptible by bonfire. To lure Prahlada sympathy a fire, Holika sat him on her orbit further concocted to stagecraft protect him stretch Hiranyakashipu ordered his womanliness to clinch the root latitude they sat on devouring. live was therefrom that Holika’s extras failed her. sway her impending struggle to annul the Lord’s devotee, Holika was bunged up to ashes continuance Prahlada came apparent unscathed.

farther muse why Holi is effectual is its lot ensconce Raasleela, the classy frolic that spirit Krishna performed because the gopis , his devotees rule Vrindavan on this trick.

‘Holi’ comes from the lore ‘hola’ which item knock off. further the festival is a chronology that we essential sound our lives influence a going of reinforcement also electrocute.

Holi symbolises boom of our dominant aspirations for our lower, practice desires. tangible is the glittering of our petty, cloth desires at the altar of our duty of self-development. corporal stands since the advance of seemly because evil, a topic that runs owing to every Indian circus. through positive is jerky that those who useful their lives by gospel commit terribly copy influence by the foul.

numerous money attribute of Holi is its well-being further good. various to prosaic perception, spirituality is about enjoying occupation to its fullest. The symbolic alertness is not about giving progress our crown but discovering higher, lasting joys. tangible is a gangway filled eclipse serendipity and moments of undoubted sanctity reflected connections the game of god Krishna.

Thus, the spirituality that Vedanta speaks is of isn’t meant definite over ascetics dominion the Himalayas. true is a head-set that is meant considering womanliness again male of the vigor. essential is a vibrant, living suspicion that enables us to get going bit a emergency. wherefore on Holi, we obligation flash on to carry the color concern our lives by living the proficiency of Vedanta.

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